By Michael LaBossiere
30 Fallacies is a better half ebook for forty two Fallacies. forty two Fallacies isn't really, despite the fact that, required to take advantage of this booklet. It offers concise descriptions and examples of thirty universal casual fallacies.
Accent, Fallacy of
Accident, Fallacy of
Amphiboly, Fallacy of
Appeal to Envy
Appeal to workforce Identity
Appeal to Guilt
Appeal to Silence
Appeal to Vanity/Elitism
Argumentum advert Hitlerum
Confusing motives and Excuses
Cum Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
Equivocation, Fallacy of
Moving the aim Posts
Overconfident Inference from Unknown Statistics
Positive advert Hominem
Proving X, Concluding Y
Reification, Fallacy of
Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy
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Extra info for 30 More Fallacies
Sam: “No, I mean the general thing. Well, I mean when I sleep in my clothes I get a headache. I’m not sure why, but sleeping with clothes on hurts my head. ” Sam: “He’s not happy. ” Sam: “That is the odd part. I still do. But I’m sure the clothes cause headaches. ” Nancy: “You know that isn’t true. ” Ashleigh: “Oh, I know. But I heard the professor say in class that drowning deaths increase in proportion to the sale of ice cream. ” Equivocation, Fallacy of Description: Equivocation occurs when an ambiguous expression is used in more than one of its meanings in a single context.
Of Ys are Xs. For example, to infer that most people who speak English are from Maine because most people from Maine speak English would be an obvious error. This is because “most” in this context is not taken to mean “at least one” but is instead taken to refer to a majority. Not surprisingly, people generally do not make such obvious errors in regards to conversion. However, people do fall victim to conversions that seem plausible. For example, when people hear that a medical test for a heart condition is 80% accurate they might be tempted to infer that 80% of those who test positive have the condition.
Treating an accidental property as an essential property and making this sort of inference would be an error. For example, while the vast majority of mammals lack pouches, lacking a pouch is not an essential property of mammals. So to infer that a marsupial lacks a pouch because it is a mammal would involve this sort of error. The fallacy can occur in cases literally involving rules (such as laws) or cases in which the rule is a bit more metaphorical (such as a rule of thumb). Example #1 “According to the constitution, people have a right to privacy.
30 More Fallacies by Michael LaBossiere