Download e-book for iPad: An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology (Routledge by Ian McNeil

By Ian McNeil

ISBN-10: 0415147921

ISBN-13: 9780415147927

To be had for the 1st time in paperback, this quantity comprises twenty-two chapters via overseas specialists overlaying the whole heritage of expertise from humankind's earliest use of stone instruments to the exploration of house. Written in actual fact and with no pointless jargon, each one bankruptcy lines the improvement of its topic from earliest instances to the current day, stressing the social context and its position in medical thought.
* Usefully drawn with over one hundred fifty tables, drawings and photographs
* accomplished indexes of names and subjects
* crucial examining for lecturers and scholars within the background and Philosophy of technological know-how and know-how, commercial heritage and Archaeology.

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Additional resources for An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology (Routledge Companion Encyclopedias)

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Evans’s first and possibly greatest invention was a flour mill which was entirely automatic. Bucket elevators were used for raising the corn to be ground, Archimedean screws to transfer it horizontally and a device called a hopper boy to take the moist warm meal and spread it evenly on an upper floor. He later added a ‘descender’, another conveyor of the belt type, and the ‘drill’ in which small rakes dragged the grain horizontally. The mill would run with no one in attendance so long as it was constantly fed.

They had cast iron as early as 350 BC, some thirteen centuries before it was known in the West; they developed the double-acting box bellows; steel was produced in the second century BC; they invented papermaking about AD 100. Gunpowder, mainly used in fireworks, is another Chinese invention. It is surprising that there seems to have been so little transfer of technology to the West in spite of so many travellers passing along the ‘Silk Road’. These, however, were merchants or royal or papal envoys.

Yet as late as the mid-thirteenth century AD Marco Polo, whose Travels were recorded in 1298, says of the Tibetans, ‘for money they use salt’ and of other eastern peoples he records the use of gold rods, white cowries, ‘the Great Khan’s paper money’ and ‘for small change’ the heads of martens. The convenience of coins over shells or the skulls of small animals, however, is not difficult to see and the practice of minting coins soon spread. 27 INTRODUCTION At first coin blanks were cast into clay moulds to be softened by re-heating before being struck between upper and lower dies, sometimes hinged together to keep them in alignment.

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An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology (Routledge Companion Encyclopedias) by Ian McNeil

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