By Cynthia Furse
Even though classical electromagnetic (EM) box thought is sometimes embedded in vector calculus and differential equations, the various easy techniques and features could be understood with precursory mathematical wisdom. thoroughly revised and up-to-date, easy creation to Bioelectromagnetics, moment variation allows the method of interdisciplinary learn through introducing existence scientists to the fundamental techniques of EM fields.
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Additional resources for Basic Introduction to Bioelectromagnetics,
A complex number consists of a real part and an imaginary part. For example, 3 + j2 is a complex number; 3 is the real part and j2 is the imaginary part. Electric field phasors, for example, are often written as Er + jEi, where Er is the real part and jEi is the imaginary part. The real and imaginary parts of phasors have important corresponding counterparts in the time domain. The time-domain function that corresponds to the real part of the phasor is 90° out of phase with the time-domain function that corresponds to the imaginary part of the phasor.
1. These techniques and typical results are described in subsequent chapters. In all cases, the relationship between the incident fields and the internal fields is very complicated. In general, the penetration of incident fields into biological bodies decreases as frequency increases. 40 Skin depth as a function of frequency for a planewave incident on a dielectric halfspace having a permittivity and conductivity equal to two-thirds that of muscle tissue. The skin depth is the distance at which the wave has decreased to 1/e (about 1/3) of its original value due to attenuation (loss) in the tissue.
31, Maxwell’s equations apply over an extremely broad frequency spectrum. The characteristic behaviors of EM fields, however, are significantly different for different frequency ranges. To be more specific, the characteristic behaviors depend on the size of the EM device or system as compared to the wavelength. 36 The wavelength is large compared to the size of the device. the largest dimension of the device or system being considered and λ is the wavelength of the EM fields. 1. For many typical devices, these three categories correspond to low frequency, medium frequency, and high frequency, respectively.
Basic Introduction to Bioelectromagnetics, by Cynthia Furse